Thursday, May 21, 2020
Introduction The Sonnet 18 Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare thee to a summerÃ¢â¬â¢s day Ã¢â¬Å" is around the most admired and prominent of the 154 poems of William Shakespeare . Most researchers concur that the true recipient of the lyric, the mate of pleasant toward oneself, whom the artist is composing, is a man, however the sonnet is generally used to portray a lady. In the piece, the pleasant toward oneself contrasts his adoration with a June through August, and contends that his affection is superior to summer (Kennedy Gioia). He additionally states that your beau will live everlastingly through the expressions of the lyric. Researchers have discovered parallels between this poem and sonnets Tristia and Amores of Ovid . A few interpretations have uncoveredÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the Time of Shakespeare, Ã¢â¬Å"compositionÃ¢â¬ Carried both outward and internal implications, the did the expression Ã¢â¬Å"calmÃ¢â¬ (remotely, the climate condition, inside, the offset of humors). The se cond importance of Ã¢â¬Å"compositionÃ¢â¬ might impart the cherishedÃ¢â¬â¢s internal que, bright, and calm aura is abrogated Like the sun on a shady day once in a while. The main significance is more self-evident, importance of a negative change in his outward appearance. According to Hut (2011), the expression, Ã¢â¬Å"untrimmedÃ¢â¬ in line eight, could be taken two courses: First, in the feeling of misfortune of enhancement and ornaments, and second, in the feeling of untrimmed cruises on a boat. In the first translation, the lyric peruses que lovely things characteristically lose Their extravagance about whether. The Ã¢â¬Å"Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May.Ã¢â¬ In the second, it peruses que nature is a boat with sails not conformed to wind changes keeping in mind the end goal to revise course. This, in consolidation with the words Ã¢â¬Å"natureÃ¢â¬â¢s evolving course,Ã¢â¬ makes an interesting expression: the constant nature of progress, or collegues que just thing does not change will be change. This line in the lyric makes a movement from the impermanence of the initial eight lines, into the unfathomable length of time of the last six. Both change and forever are Acknowledged and afterward tested by the end line (Kennedy Gio ia, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"OwÃ¢â¬â¢stÃ¢â¬ in line ten Also canShow MoreRelated Comparative Analysis of Shall I compare thee to a summers day? and The Flea2438 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesComparative Analysis of Shall I compare thee to a summers day? by William Shakespeare and The Flea by John Donne Shall I compare thee by Shakespeare focuses on romantic love, whereas Donnes poem, The Flea is all about seduction and sexual love. The situations in the two poems are very different. In Shall I compare thee, the poet is shown as a lover who is addressing his lady. His tone is gentle and romantic. He starts with a rhetorical question to whichRead MoreIdentifying the Tone of Shakespeares Shall I Compare Thee to a Summers Day?893 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I Compare Thee To A SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Day?Ã¢â¬ the author describes his lover to the unrivaled beauty that is summer. The season has made itself a good reputation for being very warm, comfortable, and relaxing. Many other lyricists, artists, and poets have described summer as being Ã¢â¬Å"too shortÃ¢â¬ or have made statements about how summer lasts longer when spent with ones you love. No freebs when the author describes the love for his woman in this poem, he says that she is perfect and has an everlastingRead MoreComparing Shakespeares Shall I Compare Thee to a Summers Day and Burns A Red Red Rose1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaffection. The poem Shall I Compare Thee to a Summers Day by Shakespeare and Burns A Red, Red Rose share common images and themes with the intention of instilling in the reader the impression of their love and in explaining the depth of their emotion for the beloved as well as the respective poets ideas about the very nature of love and how it can be both passionately fulfilling and devastating. William Shakespeares 18 Sonnet, more popularly known as the Shall I Compare Thee sonnet, is aboutRead MoreComparison of Two Poems: Shall I Compare Thee to a Summers Day and If Thou Must Love Me1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComparison of two poems Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare thee to a summerÃ¢â¬â¢s day?Ã¢â¬ written by William Shakespeare and Ã¢â¬Å"If thou must love meÃ¢â¬ written by Elizabeth Barrett Browning Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare thee to a summerÃ¢â¬â¢s dayÃ¢â¬ a poem written by William Shakespeare, is the eighteenth sonnet by this famous writer and a poet. Shakespeare, a popular english poet had written fifty four sonnets. Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare thee to summerÃ¢â¬â¢s dayÃ¢â¬ is the most popular of all the fifty four sonnets which emphasized ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s love poemRead MoreEssay on The Life of William Shakespeare1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof the most identifiable icons of England. Shakespeare was one of the greatest and most influential playwright and poet during his lifetime. He is known as the greatest dramatist of all time due to his many poems and plays, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I Compare Thee To A Summers Day?Ã¢â¬ and Romeo and Juliet. However, despite being so well known in the world of literature, there is not much known about the childhood of William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare is said to be born on April 23, 1564, although his actualRead MoreLove And The Beauty Of Summer By William Shakespeare894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare Thee to A SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s DayÃ¢â¬ , William Shakespeare compares his love interest to the beauty of summer. Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I Compare Thee To A SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s DayÃ¢â¬ , is a Shakespearean Sonnet. The poem is written in iambic pentameter, a rhyme scheme where each line consists of ten syllables that are divided into five pairs called iambs. An iamb is a metrical unit made up of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable. Common in many of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s poems, the iambic pentameter gives the poemRead MoreUse Of Imagery And Figurative Language928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe use of imagery and figurative language in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I compare Thee to a summerÃ¢â¬â¢s Day and OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s war poem Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum Est.Ã¢â¬ The poems Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I Compare Thee to a SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, by William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s and Dulce et Decorum Ã¢â¬Å" by OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s are two poems in which their poets makes extensive use of imagery and figurative language. By definition, an imagery is a word or phrase that describes senses (feel, hear, smell, taste and sight), while a figurative language which includeRead More Comparison and Contrasting Between 3 poems: - The Flea (John Donne),931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesComparison and Contrasting Between 3 poems: - The Flea (John Donne), Shall I Compare Thee To A Summers Day (William Shakespeare), and Jenny Kissed Me (James Leigh Hunt) These three love poems or sonnets were all written pre 1914 but by very different writers. The authors of these poems use different styles of writing love poetry. For instance, John Donny is very clever. His poem, The Flea brings out an angle of smart sayings to get people to have sex. William Shakespeare focuses moreRead MoreDifferent Versions Of Shall I Compare Thee And A Summer s Day?967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTwo Versions of Shall I Compare Thee to a SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Day? William Shakespeare was the original author of the famous sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"Shall I Compare Thee to a SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Day?Ã¢â¬ . ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions for writing this poem was to compare his beloved to a SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. Shakespeare wrote and published this original version of Sonnet 18 in 1609, but was rewritten in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s by Howard Moss. Shakespeare s sonnets were published only once in his lifetime. For nearly two centuries after their first appearanceRead MoreAnalyzing Sonnet 18 961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Shall I compare thee to Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ You can finish that sentence in your head canÃ¢â¬â¢t you? Whether you are a strong poetry enthusiast or not, you still probably know this famous poem. Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare is one of the most well-known poems of all time. Time and time again this piece of art has influenced contemporary pieces. Some examples of this would be; the song Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 18Ã¢â¬ by Pink Floyd, a novel titled The Darling Buds of May by H E Bates, and a famous essay Ã¢â¬Å"Rough Winds Do ShakeÃ¢â¬ written
Monday, May 18, 2020
A popular movement of crusaders, mostly commoners but also including individuals from all levels of society, who did not wait for the official leaders of the expedition but took off for the Holy Land early, unprepared and inexperienced. The Peoples Crusade was also known as: The Peasants Crusade, The Popular Crusade, or The Crusade of the Poor People. The Peoples Crusade has also been termed the first wave of crusaders by noted Crusades scholar Jonathan Riley-Smith, who has pointed out the difficulty of distinguishing separate crusade expeditions among the almost ceaseless stream of pilgrims from Europe to Jerusalem. How the Peoples Crusade got started: In November 1095, Pope Urban II made a speech at the Council of Clermont calling for Christian warriors to go to Jerusalem and free it from the rule of Muslim Turks. Urban no doubt envisioned an organized military campaign led by those whose entire social class had been built around military prowess: the nobility. He set the official date of departure for mid-August of the following year, knowing the time it would take for funds to be raised, supplies to be procured and armies to be organized. Shortly after the speech, a monk known as Peter the Hermit also began to preach Crusade. Charismatic and passionate, Peter (and probably several others like him, whose names are lost to us) appealed not just to a select portion of travel-ready combatants but to all Christians -- men, women, children, the elderly, nobles, commoners -- even serfs. His enthralling sermons fired the religious zeal in his listeners, and many people not only resolved to go on Crusade but to go right then and there, some even following Peter himself. The fact that they had little food, less money, and no military experience did not deter them in the least; they believed they were on a holy mission, and that God would provide. Armies of the Peoples Crusade: For some time, the participants in the Peoples Crusade were regarded as nothing more than peasants. While it is true many of them were commoners of one variety or another, there were also noblemen among their ranks, and the individual bands that formed were usually led by trained, experienced knights. For the most part, to call these bands armies would be a gross overstatement; in many cases, the groups were simply a collection of pilgrims traveling together. Most were on foot and armed with crude weapons, and discipline was almost nonexistent. However, some of the leaders were able to exercise more control over their followers, and a crude weapon can still inflict serious damage; so scholars continue to refer to some of these groups as armies. The Peoples Crusade moves through Europe: In March 1096, bands of pilgrims began to journey eastward through France and Germany on their way to the Holy Land. Most of them followed an ancient road of pilgrimage that ran along the Danube and into Hungary, then south into the Byzantine Empire and its capital, Constantinople. There they expected to cross the Bosphorus to territory controlled by the Turks in Asia Minor. The first to leave France was Walter Sans Avoir, who commanded a retinue of eight knights and a large company of infantry. They proceeded with surprisingly little incident along the old pilgrim route, only encountering any real trouble in Belgrade when their foraging got out of hand. Their early arrival at Constantinople in July took the Byzantine leaders by surprise; they had not had time to prepare proper lodging and supplies for their western visitors. More bands of crusaders coalesced around Peter the Hermit, who followed not far behind Walter and his men. Greater in number and less disciplined, Peters followers encountered more trouble in the Balkans. At Zemun, the last town in Hungary before reaching the Byzantine border, a riot broke out and many Hungarians were killed. The crusaders wanted to escape punishment by crossing the Sava River into Byzantium, and when Byzantine forces tried to stop them, violence ensued. When Peters followers got to Belgrade they found it deserted, and they probably sacked it in their ongoing quest for food. At nearby Nish, the governor allowed them to exchange hostages for supplies, and the town almost escaped without damage until some Germans set fire to mills as the company was leaving. The governor sent troops to attack the retreating crusaders, and although Peter ordered them not to, many of his followers turned to face the attackers and were cut down. Eventually, they reached Constantinople without further incident, but the Peoples Crusade had lost many participants and funds, and they had inflicted serious damage on the lands between their homes and Byzantium. Many other bands of pilgrims followed after Peter, but none made it to the Holy Land. Some of them faltered and turned back; others were sidetracked in some of the most horrific pogroms in medieval European history. The Peoples Crusade and the First Holocaust: The speeches of Pope Urban, Peter the Hermit, and others of his ilk had stirred up more than a pious yearning to see the Holy Land. Urbans appeal to the warrior elite had painted Muslims as enemies of Christ, subhuman, loathsome, and in need of vanquishing. Peters speeches were even more incendiary. From this malevolent viewpoint, it was a small step to see Jews in the same light. It was, sadly, an all-too-common belief that Jews had not only killed Jesus but that they continued to pose a threat to good Christians. Added to this was the fact that some Jews were notably prosperous, and they made the perfect target for greedy lords, who used their followers to massacre entire Jewish communities and plunder them for their wealth. The violence that was perpetrated against European Jews in the spring of 1096 is a significant turning point in Christian and Jewish relations. The horrific events, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of Jews, have even been called the First Holocaust. From May to July, pogroms occurred at Speyer, Worms, Mainz, and Cologne. In some cases, the bishop of the town or local Christians, or both, sheltered their neighbors. This was successful at Speyer but proved futile in other Rhineland towns. The attackers sometimes demanded that the Jews convert to Christianity on the spot or lose their lives; not only did they refuse to convert, but some even killed their children and themselves rather than die at the hands of their tormentors. The most notorious of the anti-Jewish crusaders was Count Emicho of Leiningen, who was definitely responsible for the attacks on Mainz and Cologne and may have had a hand in the earlier massacres. After the bloodshed along the Rhine was over, Emicho led his forces onward to Hungary. His reputation preceded him, and the Hungarians would not let him pass. After a three-week siege, Emichos forces were crushed, and he went home in disgrace. The pogroms were decried by many Christians of the day. Some even pointed to these crimes as the reason God forsook their fellow crusaders at Nicaea and Civetot. The end of the Peoples Crusade: By the time Peter the Hermit arrived in Constantinople, Walter Sans Avoirs army had been restlessly waiting there for weeks. Emperor Alexius convinced Peter and Walter that they should wait in Constantinople until the main body of Crusaders, who were massing in Europe under powerful noble commanders, arrived. But their followers were not happy with the decision. Theyd undergone a long journey and many trials to get there, and they were eager for action and glory. Furthermore, there still wasnt enough food and supplies for everyone, and foraging and theft were rampant. So, less than a week after Peters arrival, Alexius ferried the Peoples Crusade across the Bosporus and into Asia Minor. Now the crusaders were in a truly hostile territory where there was little food or water to be found anywhere, and they had no plan for how to proceed. They quickly began squabbling amongst themselves. Eventually, Peter returned to Constantinople to elicit help from Alexius, and the Peoples Crusade broke into two groups: one primarily made up of Germans with a few Italians, the other of Frenchmen. Toward the end of September, the French crusaders managed to loot a suburb of Nicaea. The Germans decided to do the same. Unfortunately, Turkish forces expected another attack and surrounded the German crusaders, who managed to take refuge in the fortress at Xerigordon. After eight days, the Crusaders surrendered. Those who did not convert to Islam were killed on the spot; those who did convert were enslaved and sent eastward, never to be heard from again. The Turks then sent a forged message to the French crusaders, telling of great riches the Germans had acquired. In spite of warnings from wiser men, the Frenchmen took the bait. They rushed onward, only to be ambushed at Civetot, where every last crusader was slaughtered. The Peoples Crusade was over. Peter considered returning home but instead remained in Constantinople until the main body of the more organized crusading forces arrived. The text of this document is copyright Ã ©2011-2015 Melissa Snell. You may download or print this document for personal or school use, as long as the URL below is included. Permission isÃ not granted to reproduce this document on another website.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction NTCP Model is closely related to PMBOK principles of project management, it incorporates the basic belief and put forward a framework for addressing risk and uncertainties within project management domain. This model has been formulated by undertaking serious research involving multiple dimensions. Henceforth, the model presents a solid framework to understand basic project elements and map them accordingly to understand what type of methodologies and skill set will be required by the project manager to effectively manage the project meet its outcome objectives. Using the clear approach provided by NTCP model towards dealing with risk or uncertainty makes the model very effective. Furthermore, key element is that model canÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Project Management Maturity and NTCP Model According to Sauser, Reilly, and Shenhar (2009) every project is unique and should be management accordingly with a specific methodology. My approach to understand the project uni que dynamics is through application of NTCP model however, it application will vary according to the project management maturity within the organization. I am fully cognizant of the fact and will tailor its application accordingly. NTCP model not just enables managers to understand embedded risk rather it assists opportunities and gap within current capacity against the required to grab the opportunities. Therefore the capability of NTCP model to map the risk and inform the gap is another key element that I will be using to apply within my organization. Using this capability progress through the project management maturity level would become more systematic with a higher ratio of project success. NTCP model can be used as a governance framework for each project that is being initiated within my organization, the model established as regulation would deliver lot of effectiveness for project manager. According to Shenhar and Dvir (2007) addresses both hard aspects of the management al ongside soft management pillars. Using the model consistently across organization, will add more capabilities and experience within to manage more complex projectShow MoreRelatedPrinciples of Project Management3038 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesThe principles of project management2 Viability of Projects Success/Failure Criteria4 Additional standard for the projects success/failure6 Calvert Social Index success/failure criteria7 Principles behind project management systems and procedures7 Human and material resources to achieve successful projects8 Information Security Audit System and Procedures 9 Key elements involved in terminating projects and conducting post-project appraisals 9 key elements involved in terminating projects 10Read MoreThe Principles Of Project Management3083 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesTask 1: Project Management Principles The principles of project management has served a purpose to ensure that projects can be completed by helping to strategically plan and predict risk to ensure project success. Projects have been ran from pre historian times and until 1900, projects were Ã¢â¬Å"generally managed by the creative architects and engineers themselvesÃ¢â¬ as there was no recognized profession of project management (Lock, 2007, p.2). The Dixon Company would require the use of project managementRead MorePrinciples of Project Management3022 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesTable of Contents The principles of project management2 Viability of Projects Success/Failure Criteria4 Additional standard for the projects success/failure6 Calvert Social Index success/failure criteria7 Principles behind project management systems and procedures7 Human and material resources to achieve successful projects8 Information Security Audit System and Procedures 9 Key elements involved in terminating projects and conducting post-project appraisals 9 key elements involvedRead MoreThe Principles Of Project Management2753 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesPrinciples of Project Management Assignment Two CSI 5113 Dental Hospital Project Prepared by Crackers IT services Student name Student number Nitin Sharma 10333653 Submitted to David Cook Date of submission: 29//2014 TABLE OF CONTENT 1. EXECTIVE SUMMARYÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2. INITIATIONÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 2.1 BACKGROUNDÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2.2 CURRENT STATEÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2.3 OBJECTVESÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2.4 ASSUMPTIONS AND CONSTRAINTSÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 2.5 OPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2.6 PROJECTRead MoreProject Management Principles Of A Project Manager Essay1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Construction projects have always been a very important part of human civilisation. For handling a construction project there need men, money, machinery, material and management. The project would be successful when the project manager has these five variables under control. The key to project success is to pick the right project manager. A right project manager is the person who manages the triple constraints (cost, quality and time), scope and safety for the project to be planned in a correctRead MoreProject Management Principles For Assesing Management1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStandards 6.1 Project Management We manage our projects in accordance to PRINCE2 project management principles. KAAN takes the role of assisting a client very seriuously, therefore, we persue every task with utmost precision and expect nothing but the best for our client. In case of errors proven to be commited by us, we tend to raise them as soon as they are identified and would suggest the most accurate solution to rectify it. We tend to be adaptive and flexible with every project we do and tryRead MorePrinciples Of Management Final Project2090 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesPrinciples of Management Final Project Ã¢â¬â A Closer Look at Express-Scripts Express-Scripts is a widely renowned company who grew from a small-town pharmacy into the billion dollar company it is today. Many factors attribute to the growth and success of Express-Scripts and any who take a closer look into how this company came to be soon realize that it has only been through the process of hard-work, dedication, strategic planning and finding just the right niche in the marketplace. Express-ScriptsRead MoreLesson 9-Project Management Principles6103 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesProject Management Principals Chapter 6: Executing Projects Note: See the text itself for full citations. An Introduction to Project Management, Third Edition Copyright 2010 2 Learning Objectives Ã¢â" ¸ Ã¢â" ¸ List several tasks and outputs of project execution Discuss what is involved in directing and managing project execution as part of project integration management, including the importance of producing promised deliverables, implementing solutions to problems, evaluating work performanceRead MoreMba Project Management, Strategic Planning, Principles Of Marketing And The Real Business World1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbusiness phenomenon better and solve the problemÃ¢â¬â¢s effectively, I must explore MBA in depth and so I did my Bachelorette in commerce which includes the courses related to MBA like Project Management, Strategic Planning, Principles of Marketing and so on. I also took the electives like Advertising, Human Resources Management by myself. Case studies in these courses enabled me to link theory with practice and it was through them that I found myself very much interested in market information. MBA withRead MoreEssay on MBA detail course outline1314 Wor ds Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Evening): 1.5 years (Quarters, 3, 4, 7, 8 14) General Management 1st Quarter Effective : Spring Quarter 2011 Human Resource Management Finance Accounting Banking Finance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational Communication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational Communication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational Communication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Organizational Communication Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principles of Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principles of Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principles of Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Principles of Management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Research Methods Ã¢â¬ ¢ Research Methods Ã¢â¬ ¢ Research
Imagery of Disease in Hamlet by William Shakespeare The disease imagery in Hamlet serves to constantly remind the reader of the initial problem in the play: King Hamlets poisoning by his brother. After hearing his father graphically describe the murder, it is constantly on Hamlets mind. For this reason, many of the images that Hamlet creates in the play are connected with disease and poison. The literal poisoning becomes symbolic of the rest of the events of the play. Remember that poisoning through the ear can be taken literally or figuratively (through speech and lies). Look at Poloniuss conversation with Ophelia about Hamlet, Claudius lies to Laertes and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. There are examples of decay imageryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Also, he said that it was questionable whether Ophelia took her own life, or accidentially fell in the water. I wanted to respond to Toms posting on Christian imagery in Hamlet. I thought he brought up some interesting points that I had overlooked in my reading. The idea of the Ghost of Hamlet as a parallel to the Holy Ghost is obvious to me. I agree with Tom in his description of what the Holy Ghost (spirit) is meant to be to us Christains. Along those same lines, the Ghost of Hamlet seems to have the same purpose in this play. He speaks to Hamlet without ever saying a word. He seems to guide him in his quest to revenge his death. Just as Christians are taught to feel the presence of the Holy Ghost, Hamlet feels the presence of his fathers Ghost. In the scene where he is argueing with Gertrude, Hamlet stops when he feels his fathers ghost. I believe he indeed felt his presence before he say him. There is no evidence in the text to support my claim, but it is just an interpretation I have. Another reference I like is our saviours birth is celebrated, (1672, line 140). This also to me shows how King Hamlet is often viewed as Christ-like. There seems to be a constant parallel between Christ and HamletShow MoreRelated Imagery of Disease and Decay in Hamlet Essays1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImagery of Disease and Decay in HamletÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã William Shakespeare found that imagery was a useful tool to give his works greater impact and hidden meaning. In Hamlet, Shakespeare used imagery to present ideas about the atmosphere, Hamlets character, and the major theme of the play. He used imagery of decay to give the reader a feel of the changing atmosphere. He used imagery of disease to hint how some of the different characters perceived Hamlet as he put on his antic disposition. And finallyRead More Disease and Death in Hamlet Essay992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDisease and Death in HamletÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã In Shakespeares time, Denmark was a horrible, rotting, poisoned land due to its hidden deceit. In Hamlet, Shakespeare makes many references to this as a means of clarifying relationships in the story. Writers often use imagery to provide detail and development, which help us understand ideas within and the atmosphere of the play. Hamlet, Horatio, and the ghost are the characters who allude to Denmarks state of decay. Shakespeares frequent referencesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Essay751 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet Hamlet might well claim to be Shakespeares most famous play because of its language and the charm of its central character. Shakespeare wrote some thirty-eight plays. Taken individuallyRead MoreÃâLiterary Techniques Used in HamletÃâ, by William Shakespeare Essay1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The revenge tragedy, ÃâHamletÃâ, by William Shakespeare is a tale of murder, secrets and lies where a son is called upon by the ghost of his father to avenge his death. Shakespeare uses a range of techniques in order to influence the readerÃâs understanding of ÃâHamletÃâsÃâ main themes and ideas. The most effective techniques used within the play are the soliloquies that give depth of both character and story, the powerful displays of imagery used within the play, and the dual understandingRead MoreEssay on Hamlet Metaphor1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIterative use of vivid and detailed imagery in a piece of literature is often a way of expressing a theme or concept in a literary work. This is the case in William Shakespeares Hamlet, a revenge tragedy that continually depicts the vibrant metaphors of manifesting corruption and festering disease in order to auger the impending calamities in the state of Denmark. Throughout Shakespeares play, there are successive images of deterioration, decay and death. These images are skilfully accomplishedRead MoreCorruption: The Good, The Bad and The Decayed Essay879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswithin a story. The use of this particular imagery allows one to make a connection between the natural world and the nature of people. Throughout Hamlet, a play, set in Denmark, which was written in the early seventeenth century by William Shakespeare, there are several instances where one sees decay depicting corruption. Though this play is filled with massive images of decaying nature, it is also filled with images of nature in its beautiful state. Because Hamlet portrays decaying and developing natureRead More hamlet metaphor Essay1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Iterative use of vivid and detailed imagery in a piece of literature is often a way of expressing a theme or concept in a lit erary work. This is the case in William Shakespearequot;quot;s Hamlet, a revenge tragedy that continually depicts the vibrant metaphors of manifesting corruption and festering disease in order to auger the impending calamities in the state of Denmark. Throughout Shakespearequot;quot;s play, there are successive images of deterioration, decay and death. These images areRead MoreLanguage Techniques in Hamlet by William Shakespeare Essay1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLanguage Techniques in Hamlet by William Shakespeare Shakespeare used a variety of language techniques throughout Hamlet, which contribute to the themes in the play. They also help to add more meaning and understanding for the audience. Soliloquies, word play, symbols and other figurative language are some of these important techniques that enhance Hamlet. The way Shakespeare switches fromRead MoreCompare And Contrast Hamlet And Twelfth Night1162 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrom Hilarity to Tragedy in Shakespeare: How Hamlet and Twelfth Night Compare By Zawadi Bunzigiye William Shakespeare wrote plays covering the breadth of human experience. They seem to have transcended the restraints of age because of the universal themes that they contain. His body of his work is comprised of genres of plays varying from tragedies to comedies. Of them, Hamlet and Twelfth Night are perfect examples of both. A comparison between them would be of interest because their common pointsRead MoreCorruption in Hamlet by William Shakespeare1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescountry is wholly free of the disease of corruption, and if it is allowed to develop and become significantly strong, it can obstruct the good processes of governing and deteriorate the fabric of society. It can become a barrier to continual development and make it so that essentially no room remains for justice to succeed. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, the destructive force of corruption is clearly exemplified through the abundance of imagery concerning decay, death, disease, sickness, and infection as
Q1. Use the information given below. What will be the total capitalized cost with respect to new business (Answer in $000)? (FIB)Land $6,000,000Inspection Officer $200,000Architecture Design $100,000Labour Wages $1,200,000Material Cost $2,500,000Administration Cost $400,000Property Tax $300,000Site Overheads $150,00037147528384500$ (2 marks) Q2. We will write a custom essay sample on Tangible Non-Current Assets or any similar topic only for you Order Now Siva Co took some loans from the bank at the start of the year 2010 which are as follows: 6% loan repayable in 2011 of $8m a 9% loan repayable in 2015 of $18m. A construction of a qualifying asset began on 5th April 2010 with the withdrawal of $3m of funds. On 12th August 2010, another $4m was withdrawn for the qualifying asset. What will be the capitalized borrowing cost at the end of the year 2010? (MCQ) $181,800$216,467$316,467$533,851(2 marks) Q3. Relay Co borrowed $60,000 to finance the construction of a shop. Construction will commence in two yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ time. The loan was taken on 1st January 2001 but the construction began on 1st March 2001. $13,000 of the loan was unused until 1st July 2001 and instead of keeping it idle Relay Co invested the amount with 3% return. The interest payable for the company is at 10% per annum. Calculate the cost to be capitalized for the year ended on December 2001? (MCQ)$4,800$4,870$5,130$6,000(2 marks) Q4. To operate a local locomotive the government has applied a restriction that in every two years the wheels of the locomotive has to be replaced. This replacement will cost $1.9 million. How should the replacement cost be treated? (MCQ)The cost should be taken into profit ; loss account when it is incurred The cost should be accrued over the two years ; accounted for the maintenance costThe cost should be provided in advance ; accounted for under the maintenance costCapitalize the cost ; depreciate it over the two years until next time(2 marks) Q5. Trivial Co has purchased an asset worth $375,000 on 1st January 2000 ; its useful life is stated at 20 years. A revaluation was taken place on 31st March 2002 where the assets worth increased to $390,000. What will be the total depreciation charged on the asset for the year ended 31st December 2002? (MCQ)$4,687$16,479$21,167$23,872(2 marks) Q6. Accenture Co has rented its office building to 3rd party on 30th June 2020. The company uses the fair valuation model for investment property. Buildings original cost valued at $500,000 on 1st January 2012 ; total life were 25 years. A fair value was obtained on the rented day which valued the building at $400,600. At the year-end of 2020, the fair value of the building was $850,000. What will be the revaluation gain/loss on 31st December 2020? (MCQ)$50,000 (Loss)$70,600 (Gain)$170,00 (Gain)$203,100 (Loss)(2 marks) Q7. Hexcentric inaugurated a plant on 1st July 2016. The plant was expected to run for four years until 30th June 2020. After the expected life the plant would be decommissioned and the land will be restored close to its original state. The cost of decommissioning was expected to be $6 million in four years. This estimate was calculated on 1st July 2016. To calculate the present value the company will use an 8% discount rate where the discount factor for year four is 0.735. Calculate the total charge for the cost to be taken into year-end 30th June 2017 profit ; loss account? (MCQ)$352,800$1,102,500$1,455,300$2,088,000(2 marks) Q8. The following statements relate to revaluation. (HA) The entire class of PPE has to be revalued whenever a single equipment in the respective class undergoes revaluation TRUE FALSEIf a revaluation model is used revaluation must be made regularly to ensure carrying amount has a material difference from the fair value TRUE FALSE(2 marks) Q9. Pang Co has purchased a property worth $7 million on 1st January 2013. The land valued at $3 million. The building total life was 20 years with no residual value. On 31st December 2015, the property was revalued to $9 million where the building valued at $5.184 million. The property was fully sold on 30th December 2017 for $6.5 million. Calculate the gain/loss on disposal which will be accounted for profit ; loss? (MCQ) $1,924,000 (Loss)$3,816,000 (Loss)$4,608,000 (Gain)$2,824,000 (Gain)(2 marks) Q10. Which of the following statements are correct in relation to government grants? (MRQ)A government grant is recognized in the profit ; loss over an assets useful lifeA repayment of a government grant received in previous years is a prior period adjustmentA marketing advice from the government does not constitute under the definition of government grantThe grant received for an asset must be excluded from the carrying amount of the asset (2 marks) Q11. A company has inaugurated a new plant with the help of a government grant of $20,000. The life of the plant is five years. Other than granting the installed equipment in the plant cost $90,000. All equipment is depreciated at 20% per annum on a straight-line basis. Calculate the value of government grant taken into Year 1 current liability using deferred income method? (MCQ)$4,000$16,000$18,000$20,000(2 marks) Q12. A company issued loan notes for $200,000 on 1st January 2008. On the same day, the company used the money to buy an investment property. At the year-end, the fair value of the property had risen to $400,000 with a remaining life of ten years. The company uses the fair value model for all properties. Which of the values will be accounted in the yearÃ¢â¬â¢s profit ; loss account? (MCQ)Gain $200,000, Depreciation $40,000Gain $0, Depreciation $40,000Gain $200,000, Depreciation $0Gain $200,000, Depreciation $20,000(2 marks) Q13. Zima Co took some loans from the bank at the start of the year 2015 which are as follows: 9% loan repayable in 2016 of $11m ; a 13% loan repayable in 2020 of $29m. A construction of a qualifying asset began on 5th April 2015 with the withdrawal of $8m of funds. On 12th August 2015, another $9m was withdrawn for the qualifying asset. What will be the capitalized borrowing cost at the end of the year 2015? (MCQ) $267,750$446,250$714,000$1,160,250(2 marks) Q14. Olay Co borrowed $25,000 to finance the construction of a plant. Construction will commence in two yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ time. The loan was taken on 1st January 2013 but the construction began on 1st March 2013. $6,000 of the loan was unused until 1st July 2013 and instead of keeping it idle Olay Co invested the amount with 7% return. The interest payable for the company is at 15% per annum. Calculate the cost to be capitalized for the year ended on December 2013? (FIB)3613151270000$ (2 marks) Q15. Plato Co has purchased an asset worth $258,990 on 1st January 2008 ; its useful life is stated at twenty years. A revaluation was taken place on 31st March 2010 where the assets worth increased to $310,000. What will be the total depreciation charged on the asset for the year ended 31st December 2010 nearest to $000? (FIB)3613151270000$ (2 marks) Q16. Ventura Co has rented one its properties to a 3rd party on 30th June 2010. The company uses the fair valuation model as an investment property. PropertyÃ¢â¬â¢s original cost valued at $800,800 on 1st January 2002 ; total life was 50 years. A fair value was obtained on the rented day which valued the building at $750,500. At the year-end of 2010, the fair value of the building was $1,150,000. What will be the revaluation gain at 31st December 2010? (FIB)3613151270000$ (2 marks) Q17. Boric Co opened a machine on 1st July 2006. The plant was expected to run for four years until 30th June 2010. After the expected life the machine would be decommissioned and the area will be restored nearest to its original state. The cost of decommissioning was expected to be $3.3 million in four years. This estimate was calculated on 1st July 2006. To calculate the present value the company will use a 12% discount rate. Calculate the total charge for the cost to be taken into year-end 30th June 2007 profit ; loss account? (MCQ)$251,856$272,844$524,700$776,556(2 marks) Q18. Bing Co has purchased a land ; building worth $12 million on 1st January 2005. The land valued at $4 million. The buildings total life was ten years with no residual value. On 31st December 2007, the land ; building were revalued to $16 million where the land valued at $6.75 million. The land ; building was fully sold by 30th December 2009 for $10.5 million. Calculate the gain/loss on disposal? (MCQ) $4,472,000 (Loss)$1,600,000 (Loss)$1,028,000 (Gain)$5,600,000 (Gain)(2 marks) Q19. Jazzy Co has opened a new factory with the help of a government grant of $580,600. The life of the plant is fifteen years. Other than granting the installed equipment in the plant cost $20,400. All equipment is depreciated at 25% per annum on reducing balance basis. Calculate the value of government grant taken into Year 1 current liability using deferred income method? (MCQ)$15,300$20,400$145,150$150,250(2 marks) TANGIBLE NON-CURRENT ASSETS (ANSWERS) Q1. $10,150 Capitalized Cost = 6,000 + 200 + 100 + 1,200 + 2,500 + 150 = $10,150 Q2. CInterest = (8 Ãâ" 6%) = 0.48 + (18 Ãâ" 9%) = 1.62 = 2.1(2.1 Ã · 26) Ãâ" 100 = 8.08%3,000,000 Ãâ" 8.08% Ãâ" 9/12 = 181,8004,000,000 Ãâ" 8.08% Ãâ" 5/12 = 134,667Total = 181,800 + 134,667 = $316,467 Q3. B60,000 Ãâ" 10% Ãâ" 10/12 = 5,00013,000 Ãâ" 3% Ãâ" 4/12 = (130)Total = 5,000 Ã¢â¬â 130 = $4,870 Q4. DThis is known as overhauling where maintenance, inspection or any repair is required. It is capitalized in the asset ; depreciated over its useful life in this case the life of wheels. Q5. CDepreciation till 31st March = (375,000 Ã · 20) = 18,750 Ãâ" 3/12 = $4,687Years = 20 Ã¢â¬â 2.25 = 17.75 remainingDepreciation till 31st December = (390,000 Ã · 17.75) = 21,972 Ãâ" 9/12 = $16,479Total = 4,687 + 16,479 = $21,167 Q6. BDepreciation = (500,000 Ã · 25) Ãâ" 8.5 = 170,000Cost Ã¢â¬â Depreciation = 500,000 Ã¢â¬â 170,000 = 330,000Revaluation Gain = 400,600 Ã¢â¬â 330,000 = 70,600 Q7. CDepreciation = 6,000,000 Ãâ" 0.735 = 4,410,000 Ã · 4 = 1,102,500 Finance Cost = 4,410,000 Ãâ" 8% = 352,800Total = 1,102,500 + 352,800 = $1,455,300 Q8.The entire class of PPE has to be revalued whenever a single equipment in the respective class undergoes revaluation TRUE If a revaluation model is used revaluation must be made regularly to ensure carrying amount has a material difference from the fair value FALSEThe difference between carrying amount ; the fair value should be immaterial when applying revaluation model. Q9. AWorkings are done in $000.Depreciation (Building) = (4,000 Ã · 20) Ãâ" 2 = 400Cost = 7,000 Ã¢â¬â 400 = 6,600 Revalued to 9,000 with gain of 2,400Depreciation (Building) = (5,184 Ã · 18) Ãâ" 2 = 576Building value = 5,184 Ã¢â¬â 576 = 4,608Property value = (4,608 Building) + (3,816 Land) = 8,424Loss on disposal = 8,424 Ã¢â¬â 6,500 = 1,924 Q10.A government grant is recognized in the profit ; loss over an assets useful life (Correct)A repayment of a government grant received in previous years is a prior period adjustment; all adjustments are to be dealt prospectively A marketing advice from the government does not constitute under the definition of government grant (Correct)The grant received for an asset must be excluded from the carrying amount of the asset; a deferred income method can be used also Q11. AThe deferred income method:Year 0Equipment Dr. (90+20) $110,000Bank Cr $90,000Government Grant Cr $20,000Year 1Depreciation for equipment = 110,000 Ãâ" 20% = $22,000Government Grant = 20,000 Ãâ" 20% = $4,000 (Current Liability) Q12. CThe gain of $200,000 will be recorded as in fair value model no depreciation is charged. Q13.Interest = (11 Ãâ" 9%) = 0.99 + (29 Ãâ" 13%) = 3.77 = 4.76(4.76 Ã · 40) Ãâ" 100 = 11.9%8,000,000 Ãâ" 11.9% Ãâ" 9/12 = 714,0009,000,000 Ãâ" 11.9% Ãâ" 5/12 = 446,250Total = 714,000 + 446,250 = $1,160,250Q14. $2,98525,000 Ãâ" 15% Ãâ" 10/12 = 3,1256,000 Ãâ" 7% Ãâ" 4/12 = (140)Total = 3,125 Ã¢â¬â 140 = $2,985 Q15. $16,300Depreciation till 31st March = (258,990 Ã · 20) = 12,950 Ãâ" 3/12 = $3,238Years = 20 Ã¢â¬â 2.25 = 17.75 remainingDepreciation till 31st December = (310,000 Ã · 17.75) = 17,465 Ãâ" 9/12 = $13,099Total = 3,238 + 13,099 = $16,337Nearest to $000 = $16,300 Q16. $85,836Depreciation = (800,800 Ã · 50) Ãâ" 8.5 = 136,136Cost Ã¢â¬â Depreciation = 800,800 Ã¢â¬â 136,136 = 664,664Revaluation Gain = 750,500 Ã¢â¬â 664,664 = $85,836 Q17. DDepreciation = 3,300,000 Ãâ" 0.636 = 2,098,800 Ã · 4 = 524,700 Finance Cost = 2,098,800 Ãâ" 12% = 251,856Total = 524,700 + 251,856 = $776,556 Q18. AWorkings are done in $000.Depreciation (Building) = (8,000 Ã · 10) Ãâ" 2 = 1,600Cost = 12,000 Ã¢â¬â 1,600 = 10,400 Revalued to 16,000 with gain of 5,600Depreciation (Building) = (9,250 Ã · 18) Ãâ" 2 = 1,028Building value = 9,250 Ã¢â¬â 1,028 = 8,222Land ; Building value = (8,222 Building) + (6,750 Land) = 14,972Loss on disposal = 14,972 Ã¢â¬â 10,500 = 4,472 Q19. CThe deferred income method:Year 0Equipment Dr. (580,600 + 20,400) $601,000Bank Cr $20,400Government Grant Cr $580,600Year 1Depreciation for equipment = 601,000 Ãâ" 25% = $150,250Government Grant = 580,600 Ãâ" 25% = $145,150 (Current Liability) How to cite Tangible Non-Current Assets, Papers
Interpersonal Communication Essay Different types of communication happen together or simultaneously. For example, you may read a memo (written) to a person in a meeting (interpersonal) while you are sitting in a chair, grimacing (nonverbal). However, by recognizing the modes in which you are communicating, you are better able to choose strategies to communicate more effectively. For instance, lets take the scenario that I just described. Perhaps I am unhappy about the memo, but I do not want the others in the meeting to realize that I am not pleased. By paying attention to my nonverbal communication, I can adjust my unwanted nonverbal communication and more effectively send my message to the others in the room. Finally, I will provide examples of communicative and non-communicative events based on my definition. Interpersonal communication, in my opinion, is the exchange of information verbal or non-verbal between two, no more than 5 or 6, people for the purpose of getting a feedback and sharing information. Interpersonal communication is not interpersonal if it involves too many people. When the number of people exceeds a certain amount it is no longer interpersonal communication,it then becomes mass communication. In my definition it is vital that feed-back be given to the person that is doing the communicating. When feedback is not present then the lines of communication break down and then there is no communication at all. Even if the message is perceived wrong interpersonal communication still exists as long as the feedback is given. For example: when you talk to someone that is hard of hearing and you ask them to do something and they hear you say something other than what you said there is still interpersonal communication, although it is miscommunication. If the person, however, does not here the speaker at all and does not give any feedback, then interpersonal communication has not been established according to my definition. Another important dimension to my definition is that the information is exchanged in order to share the information. When the information that is exchanged is not used to share the information, then interpersonal communication has not taken place. If you speak in a way in which the person does not feel receptive to what you are saying then you have not achieved interpersonal communication. When a boss yells at his employees, or a teacher yells at his or her students then interpersonal communication has not taken place. True communication has taken place, but it was not interpersonal communication. The information is not being shared it is being forced upon people. The information has to be shared such as when a friend tells another friend about a problem that he or she is having or when a child talks to his or her parents about something personal. That information is being shared by two people in order to illicit a feedback. There are many important issues that become important when discussing my definition of interpersonal communication. One primary assumption is that communication must be carried on by people that are alive. Michael Cody uses an assumption like this when he is discussing his definition of interpersonal communication. Codys assumption says that interpersonal communication occurs between people who are in a state of being. His state of being is different form mine in that I mainly imply that the person must be alive in order to establish interpersonal communication. In Cody assumption his state of being is three pronged including, 1) people change, 2) people are searching for meaning for development and 3) it implies that communication can never be replicated (Cody 30). When Cody talks about being he is going into more detail than I would. As stated earlier my state of being means just being alive. Another important issue that needs to be brought up when discussing my definition of interpersonal communication is the issue of the number of people. When dealing with the issue of interpersonal communication the amount of people being communicated with is of utmost importance. Can a preacher have interpersonal communication with his congregation on Sunday morning?. According to my definition he cannot. Interpersonal communication must be done when there is a certain amount of people. The Sounds of the Unknown Essay For example, being fearful or anxious when communicating with the boss or with strangers but not with friends (McCroskey Richmond, 1987). Situational CA depends upon changes in the environment in which communication takes place. Causes of Communication Apprehension Causes of Traitlike CA. When we consider the aetiology of human behaviour generally two primary explanations are hereditary and the environment. .
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NIOSH The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety an Health Administration (OSHA) were established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act passed by congress in 1970. NIOSH is a part of the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and is the only federally funded and controlled division responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work related illnesses and injuries. It is important to understand the OSHA and NIOSH are two separate agencies. OSHA is housed under the Department of Labor and is responsible for the development and enforcement of workplace health and safety regulations. NIOSH on the other hand is in the Department of Health and Human Services and is a research agency. NIOSH was created when the US Secretary of Labor was directed by congress through section 2B (5,6) of the OSH Act to "provide for research in the field of occupational safety and health, including the psychological involved, and by developing innovative methods, techniques, and approaches for dealing with occupational safety and health problems: by exploring ways to discover latent diseases, establishing causal connections between diseases and work and environmental conditions, and conducting other research relating to health problems, in recognition of the fact that occupational health standards present problems often different from those involved in occupational safety". During its 25 year history NIOSH has had its function revised two times, once in 1977 by amendment to the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act and in 1995 when the U.S. Bureau of Mine Health and Safety Research was consolidated and placed in NIOSH. These changes allowed NIOSH to play the same role in the mining industry that they played in all others. The duties and responsibilities of NIOSH are numerous but include: ? Investigating potentially hazardous working conditions as reported by employees or employers. ? Evaluate the hazards of new technologies and work practices. ? Researching, Creating and Evaluating methods for preventing disease, illness or injury in the workplace. ? Providing education and training to individuals preparing for or actively involved in the field of occupational safety and health. ? Recommend occupational safety and health standards to OSHA. Many of the efforts of NIOSH are targeted at anticipating workplace crisis and making sure that they do not come to pass. An example of one of these efforts is the many mine disaster that have been prevented as a result of the pillar system developed by NIOSH for longwall mining. Another example is the many health emergencies that have been avoided as a result of the NIOSH information hotline. As a federal agency NIOSH has given itself both a vision and a mission statement. It's vision is "Delivering on the Nations promise: safety and health at work for all people through research and prevention". The mission of NIOSH is to "provide national and world leadership to prevent work-related illness, injury and death by gathering information, conducting scientific studies and translating the knowledge gained into products and services". NIOSH has given itself four strategic goals for the next decade. The first goal is to "conduct a targeted program of research to reduce morbidity, injuries and mortality among workers in high priority areas and high-risk sectors". In order to accomplish goal number one NIOSH will follow NORA or the National Occupational Research Agenda. NORA breaks NIOSH research down into 3 distinct areas, disease and injury, work environment/workforce and research tools and approaches. Each of the three areas has specific areas of research that will be targeted. The following is a brief list of the targeted research areas: Disease and Injury Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis Hearing Loss Low Back Disorders Cumulative Trauma Disorders Work Environment Emerging Technologies And Workforce Indoor Environment Special Populations at Risk Research Tools and Cancer Research Methods Approaches Control Technology and PPE Exposure Assessment Methods Risk Assessment Methods It is understood that while there are many other area's of research that may still have importance, under NORA these will be some of the areas receiving the majority of research attention at this time. The second goal is to "develop a system of surveillance of major occupational illnesses, injuries, exposures and health hazards". Congress decided in 1986 that the ability to identify, quantify and report work-related injury and disease is vital to prevention. To make optimal use of public resources to conduct this surveillance NIOSH has created partnerships at Federal, State and Local levels throughout the country. An example of this type of surveillance is the FACE program or Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation. In this program partnerships formed with state Health Departments allow NIOSH to